Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, United States in the 1970s. NLP's creators claim there is a connection between neurological processes (neuro-), language (linguistic) and behavioral patterns learned through experience (programming), and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.[1][2] Bandler and Grinder also claim that NLP methodology can "model" the skills of exceptional people, allowing anyone to acquire those skills.[3][4] They claim as well that, often in a single session, NLP can treat problems such as phobias, depression, tic disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, near-sightedness,[5] allergy, common cold,[6] and learning disorders.[7][8]
Braid worked very closely with his friend and ally the eminent physiologist Professor William Benjamin Carpenter, an early neuro-psychologist who introduced the "ideo-motor reflex" theory of suggestion. Carpenter had observed instances of expectation and imagination apparently influencing involuntary muscle movement. A classic example of the ideo-motor principle in action is the so-called "Chevreul pendulum" (named after Michel Eugène Chevreul). Chevreul claimed that divinatory pendulae were made to swing by unconscious muscle movements brought about by focused concentration alone.
Carol is president of Sommer Solutions, Inc. through which she coaches and trains clinical and corporate audiences internationally. She has presented at numerous professional conferences, including American Society of Clinical Hypnosis and Ericksonian Congresses. Carol maintains a private practice in personal and professional coaching and counseling in Downers Grove, IL.
At first blush, this simply reproduced, spiral-bound book probably won't knock you off your feet. It is, however, a practical manual on how to use indirect (Ericksonian) language in hypnotherapy. With a little imagination and work, a user can find all sorts of applications in sales and business communcations and all sorts of persuasive and entertaining communcations.

The first neuropsychological theory of hypnotic suggestion was introduced early by James Braid who adopted his friend and colleague William Carpenter's theory of the ideo-motor reflex response to account for the phenomenon of hypnotism. Carpenter had observed from close examination of everyday experience that, under certain circumstances, the mere idea of a muscular movement could be sufficient to produce a reflexive, or automatic, contraction or movement of the muscles involved, albeit in a very small degree. Braid extended Carpenter's theory to encompass the observation that a wide variety of bodily responses besides muscular movement can be thus affected, for example, the idea of sucking a lemon can automatically stimulate salivation, a secretory response. Braid, therefore, adopted the term "ideo-dynamic", meaning "by the power of an idea", to explain a broad range of "psycho-physiological" (mind–body) phenomena. Braid coined the term "mono-ideodynamic" to refer to the theory that hypnotism operates by concentrating attention on a single idea in order to amplify the ideo-dynamic reflex response. Variations of the basic ideo-motor, or ideo-dynamic, theory of suggestion have continued to exercise considerable influence over subsequent theories of hypnosis, including those of Clark L. Hull, Hans Eysenck, and Ernest Rossi.[40] It should be noted that in Victorian psychology the word "idea" encompasses any mental representation, including mental imagery, memories, etc.


Modern conversational hypnosis incorporates elements of Ericksonian Hypnosis, Neuro Linguistic Programming, psychology and sociology. It is a technique derived from practical application and case study rather than just theory. In the more formal guise of Ericksonian hypnosis it is one of the favored techniques used by hypnotherapists the world over. However it is it's increasing use by hypnotists, most of whom don't hold any formal qualification, in normal, everyday conversation that has seen its rapid development in recent years. Today it is arguably the most effective hypnosis technique ever known. It is the hypnotists ability to carry out the hypnosis without the consent, or even the knowledge of the person being hypnotized, that makes it such a powerful tool for anyone who wants to know how to hypnotize anybody.

In as much as patients can throw themselves into the nervous sleep, and manifest all the usual phenomena of Mesmerism, through their own unaided efforts, as I have so repeatedly proved by causing them to maintain a steady fixed gaze at any point, concentrating their whole mental energies on the idea of the object looked at; or that the same may arise by the patient looking at the point of his own finger, or as the Magi of Persia and Yogi of India have practised for the last 2,400 years, for religious purposes, throwing themselves into their ecstatic trances by each maintaining a steady fixed gaze at the tip of his own nose; it is obvious that there is no need for an exoteric influence to produce the phenomena of Mesmerism. [...] The great object in all these processes is to induce a habit of abstraction or concentration of attention, in which the subject is entirely absorbed with one idea, or train of ideas, whilst he is unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, every other object, purpose, or action.[52]


While amnesia may occur in very rare cases, people generally remember everything that transpired while they were hypnotized. However, hypnosis can have a significant effect on memory. Posthypnotic amnesia can lead an individual to forget certain things that occurred before or during hypnosis. However, this effect is generally limited and temporary.

Jump up ^ Chomskyan linguistics encourages the investigation of "corner cases" that stress the limits of its theoretical models (comparable to pathological phenomena in mathematics), typically created using thought experiments, rather than the systematic investigation of typical phenomena that occur in real-world data, as is the case in corpus linguistics. The creation and use of such corpora of real-world data is a fundamental part of machine-learning algorithms for natural language processing. In addition, theoretical underpinnings of Chomskyan linguistics such as the so-called "poverty of the stimulus" argument entail that general learning algorithms, as are typically used in machine learning, cannot be successful in language processing. As a result, the Chomskyan paradigm discouraged the application of such models to language processing.
People have been pondering and arguing over hypnosis for more than 200 years, but science has yet to fully explain how it actually happens. We see what a person does under hypnosis, but it isn't clear why he or she does it. This puzzle is really a small piece in a much bigger puzzle: how the human mind works. It's unlikely that scientists will arrive at a definitive explanation of the mind in the foreseeable future, so it's a good bet hypnosis will remain something of a mystery as well.
More therapeutic style of Hypnosis (Ericksonian) have a lot of power behind them, but aren't always conversational.  For example if you watch any of Erickson's work, there is a certain rhythm, tone and sequence that takes place.  This particular style is very overt and people realise that something hypnotic is happening.  For therapy, this is great, but it doesn't work if you're having a casual discussion with a friend at a party (You violate the Social Contract).
Hypnosis has long been considered a valuable technique for recreating and then studying puzzling psychological phenomena. A classic example of this approach uses a technique known as posthypnotic amnesia (PHA) to model memory disorders such as functional amnesia, which involves a sudden memory loss typically due to some sort of psychological trauma (rather than to brain damage or disease). Hypnotists produce PHA by suggesting to a hypnotized person that after hypnosis he will forget particular things until he receives a “cancellation,” such as “Now you can remember everything.” PHA typically only happens when it is specifically suggested and it is much more likely to occur in those with high levels of hypnotic ability, or “high hypnotizable” people. Now a new study shows that this hypnotic state actually influences brain activity associated with memory.
You may also be interested in reading this old post that we wrote a while back about Core Conversational Hypnosis skills here, http://hypnosistrainingacademy.com/core-conversational-hypnosis-skills/ . Take your time Kattie, with practice and perseverance you WILL definitely be able to feel more and more comfortable to perform these two skills. There is no rush! Best wishes for your future practice, and thanks for writing in.

The two main therapeutic uses of NLP are: (1) as an adjunct by therapists[72] practicing in other therapeutic disciplines; (2) as a specific therapy called Neurolinguistic Psychotherapy[73] which is recognized by the United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy[74] with accreditation governed at first by the Association for Neuro Linguistic Programming[75] and more recently by its daughter organization the Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy and Counselling Association.[76] Neither Neuro-Linguistic Programming nor Neuro-Linguistic Psychotherapy are NICE-approved.[77]

However, there’s a lot of controversy over how hypnosis works, Milling says. “Originally, Freud theorized that hypnosis weakens the barrier between the conscious and subconscious,” he says, adding that this theory has largely been abandoned. While some attribute the power of hypnosis to the placebo effect, another theory is that “hypnosis causes people to enter an altered state of consciousness, which makes them very responsive to hypnotic suggestions,” he says. While talk about “altered states of consciousness” sounds a little spooky, there’s no loss of consciousness or amnesia.
Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that hypnosis, relaxation, and meditation techniques can reduce anxiety, particularly that related to stressful situations, such as receiving chemotherapy (see box). They are also effective for insomnia, particularly when the techniques are integrated into a package of cognitive therapy (including, for example, sleep hygiene). A systematic review showed that hypnosis enhances the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for conditions such as phobia, obesity, and anxiety.
Findings from randomized controlled trials support the use of various relaxation techniques for treating both acute and chronic pain, although 2 recent systematic reviews suggest that methodologic flaws may compromise the reliability of these findings. Randomized trials have shown hypnosis is valuable for patients with asthma and irritable bowel syndrome, yoga is helpful for patients with asthma, and tai chi helps to reduce falls and fear of falling in elderly people. Evidence from systematic reviews shows hypnosis and relaxation techniques are probably not of general benefit in stopping smoking or substance misuse or in treating hypertension.​hypertension.,​,
"This training made me realize how infrequently I practice creating rapport. I find myself getting annoyed or bored by people who are not speaking on my same passionate wavelength about subjects that really interest me. I also feel intimidated and repressed by those who are speaking passionately about subjects that do not interest me. I will try to notice my avoidance behaviors and replace them with rapport building communication." Read more testimonials
More therapeutic style of Hypnosis (Ericksonian) have a lot of power behind them, but aren't always conversational.  For example if you watch any of Erickson's work, there is a certain rhythm, tone and sequence that takes place.  This particular style is very overt and people realise that something hypnotic is happening.  For therapy, this is great, but it doesn't work if you're having a casual discussion with a friend at a party (You violate the Social Contract).
In 1784, at the request of King Louis XVI, a Board of Inquiry started to investigate whether animal magnetism existed. Among the board members were founding father of modern chemistry Antoine Lavoisier, Benjamin Franklin, and an expert in pain control, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin. They investigated the practices of a disaffected student of Mesmer, one Charles d'Eslon (1750–1786), and though they concluded that Mesmer's results were valid, their placebo-controlled experiments using d'Eslon's methods convinced them that mesmerism was most likely due to belief and imagination rather than to an invisible energy ("animal magnetism") transmitted from the body of the mesmerist.
This is "operant conditioning". It worked (nonverbally) on Pavlov's dogs, and it will work on just about anything with a functioning brain. The client processes all of the preceding automatically, with the massive and fairly reliable firepower of the unconscious mind. They don't need to focus all that intensely and sometimes it even helps if they don't!
The objective is to change the person’s behavior subconsciously so that the target believes that they changed their mind of their own volition. When or if performed successfully, the target is unaware that they have been hypnotized or that anything unusual has occurred. Arguably there is a debate about what hypnosis is, and how covert hypnosis should be classified. "Standard" hypnosis requires the focus and attention of the subject, while covert hypnosis seems to focus on "softening" the subject by using confusion, fatigue, directed attention, and interrupted sentences. This is most similar to salesmen talking to customers when they are tired. Critical thinking and questioning of statements likely requires mental effort.[7][improper synthesis?] The theme of "covert hypnosis" appears to be along the lines of causing the subject to enter "down time".[8] Regardless of if "covert hypnosis" is "hypnosis" by a standard definition, fatigue does appear to make critically thinking more difficult.[7] This might explain why interrogation and cult-recruitment practices prefer to deprive their new-recruits of sleep.[9]
However, adjunct lecturer in linguistics Karen Stollznow describes Bandler's and Grinder's reference to such experts as namedropping. Other than Satir, the people they cite as influences did not collaborate with Bandler or Grinder. Chomsky himself has no association with NLP whatsoever; his original work was intended as theory, not therapy. Stollznow writes, "[o]ther than borrowing terminology, NLP does not bear authentic resemblance to any of Chomsky's theories or philosophies – linguistic, cognitive or political."[18]
"This training made me realize how infrequently I practice creating rapport. I find myself getting annoyed or bored by people who are not speaking on my same passionate wavelength about subjects that really interest me. I also feel intimidated and repressed by those who are speaking passionately about subjects that do not interest me. I will try to notice my avoidance behaviors and replace them with rapport building communication." Read more testimonials
The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH) is unique among organizations for professionals using hypnosis because members must be licensed healthcare workers with graduate degrees. As an interdisciplinary organization, ASCH not only provides a classroom to teach professionals how to use hypnosis as a tool in their practice, it provides professionals with a community of experts from different disciplines. The ASCH's missions statement is to provide and encourage education programs to further, in every ethical way, the knowledge, understanding, and application of hypnosis in health care; to encourage research and scientific publication in the field of hypnosis; to promote the further recognition and acceptance of hypnosis as an important tool in clinical health care and focus for scientific research; to cooperate with other professional societies that share mutual goals, ethics and interests; and to provide a professional community for those clinicians and researchers who use hypnosis in their work. The ASCH also publishes the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Nearly any task in NLP can be formulates as a sequence to sequence task: machine translation, summarization, question answering, and many more. In this module we will learn a general encoder-decoder-attention architecture that can be used to solve them. We will cover machine translation in more details and you will see how attention technique resembles word alignment task in traditional pipeline.
Jump up ^ Muller Weitzenhoffer, André (1989). "Chapter 8 Ericksonian Hypnotism: The Bandler/Grinder Interpretation". The Practice of Hypnotism Volume 2: Applications of Traditional an Semi-Traditional Hypnotism. Non-Traditional Hypnotism (1st ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 306. ISBN 0-471-62168-4. This work [TRANCE-Formation], incidentally, contains some glaring misstatements of facts. For example, Freud and Mesmer were depicted as contemporaries!
The Natural Language Processing Group at Stanford University is a team of faculty, postdocs, programmers and students who work together on algorithms that allow computers to process and understand human languages. Our work ranges from basic research in computational linguistics to key applications in human language technology, and covers areas such as sentence understanding, automatic question answering, machine translation, syntactic parsing and tagging, sentiment analysis, and models of text and visual scenes, as well as applications of natural language processing to the digital humanities and computational social sciences.
(Different places in the world have different rules around who can practice as a hypnotherapist. My view is to practice as a hypnotherapist you should undertake extensive live classroom tuition (minimum 120 hours of classroom tuition and minimum 450 hours total training) which teaches therapy and then only work with those client groups you have been trained to work with. If you are totally untrained but have an interest in learning conversational hypnotherapy this course will teach you what you need to know, but I would recommend you shouldn't work as a hypnotherapist based just on taking this course. This course will still teach you advanced communication skills which can be helpful in a wide range of life situations. If you have trained in hypnotherapy, counselling, coaching, or NLP or other similar fields then conversational hypnotherapy should make great additional skills for your tool-box to use with clients you have been trained to work with, and this course should also give you a greater understanding about your use of language and other skills with clients even if you aren't doing hypnosis)
He also believed that hypnosis was a "partial sleep", meaning that a generalised inhibition of cortical functioning could be encouraged to spread throughout regions of the brain. He observed that the various degrees of hypnosis did not significantly differ physiologically from the waking state and hypnosis depended on insignificant changes of environmental stimuli. Pavlov also suggested that lower-brain-stem mechanisms were involved in hypnotic conditioning.[166][167]
In 1784, at the request of King Louis XVI, a Board of Inquiry started to investigate whether animal magnetism existed. Among the board members were founding father of modern chemistry Antoine Lavoisier, Benjamin Franklin, and an expert in pain control, Joseph-Ignace Guillotin. They investigated the practices of a disaffected student of Mesmer, one Charles d'Eslon (1750–1786), and though they concluded that Mesmer's results were valid, their placebo-controlled experiments using d'Eslon's methods convinced them that mesmerism was most likely due to belief and imagination rather than to an invisible energy ("animal magnetism") transmitted from the body of the mesmerist.
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