Cancer patients use relaxation and hypnosis. Evidence from randomized trials shows hypnosis and relaxation are effective for cancer-related anxiety, pain, nausea, and vomiting, particularly in children. Some practitioners also claim that relaxation techniques, particularly the use of imagery, can prolong life, although currently available evidence is insufficient to support this claim.
Jump up ^ Chomskyan linguistics encourages the investigation of "corner cases" that stress the limits of its theoretical models (comparable to pathological phenomena in mathematics), typically created using thought experiments, rather than the systematic investigation of typical phenomena that occur in real-world data, as is the case in corpus linguistics. The creation and use of such corpora of real-world data is a fundamental part of machine-learning algorithms for natural language processing. In addition, theoretical underpinnings of Chomskyan linguistics such as the so-called "poverty of the stimulus" argument entail that general learning algorithms, as are typically used in machine learning, cannot be successful in language processing. As a result, the Chomskyan paradigm discouraged the application of such models to language processing.
In the early 1980s, NLP was advertised as an important advance in psychotherapy and counseling, and attracted some interest in counseling research and clinical psychology. However, as controlled trials failed to show any benefit from NLP and its advocates made increasingly dubious claims, scientific interest in NLP faded. Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses have failed to show evidence for NLP's assumptions or effectiveness as a therapeutic method. While some NLP practitioners have argued that the lack of empirical support is due to insufficient research testing NLP, the consensus scientific opinion is that NLP is pseudoscience and that attempts to dismiss the research findings based on these arguments "[constitute]s an admission that NLP does not have an evidence base and that NLP practitioners are seeking a post-hoc credibility." Surveys in the academic community have shown NLP to be widely discredited among scientists. Among the reasons for considering NLP a pseudoscience are that evidence in favor of it is limited to anecdotes and personal testimony, that it is not informed by scientific understanding of neuroscience and linguistics, and that the name "neuro-linguistic programming" uses jargon words to impress readers and obfuscate ideas, whereas NLP itself does not relate any phenomena to neural structures and has nothing in common with linguistics or programming. In fact, in education, NLP has been used as a key example of pseudoscience.
I usually have 'unconscious' on my left as I talk to someone, and 'conscious' on my right, but as I wanted to hypnotise the other students in the room, especially the student off the right side of the screen I decided to have the location I talk to the 'unconscious' being the opposite side to usual so that I could direct suggestions and ideas to the students. (Watching closely you can see me hypnotising three separate times, once for the student in the chair, once towards the student off to the right of the screen and once to the rest of the group, the group and the other student were being hypnotised without knowing it was going to happen, whereas the student in the demonstration chair demonstrated and so is aware they were being hypnotised)
Adverse events resulting from relaxation techniques are uncommon. Rare reports describe basilar or vertebral artery occlusion after yoga postures that put particular strain on the neck. People with poorly controlled cardiovascular disease should avoid progressive muscle relaxation because abdominal tensing can cause the Valsalva response. Patients with a history of psychosis or epilepsy have reportedly had further acute episodes after deep and prolonged meditation.
Jump up ^ Implementing an online help desk system based on conversational agent Authors: Alisa Kongthon, Chatchawal Sangkeettrakarn, Sarawoot Kongyoung and Choochart Haruechaiyasak. Published by ACM 2009 Article, Bibliometrics Data Bibliometrics. Published in: Proceeding, MEDES '09 Proceedings of the International Conference on Management of Emergent Digital EcoSystems, ACM New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-1-60558-829-2, doi:10.1145/1643823.1643908
“It is very helpful for smoking cessation,” adds Dr. David Spiegel, a hypnosis expert and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine. “Half the people I see once stop [smoking], half of them won’t touch a cigarette for two years.” A 2007 randomized trial of 286 smokers found that 20% of people who received hypnosis managed to quit, compared to 14% of those receiving standard behavioral counseling. The smoking cessation benefits were even more pronounced among smokers with a history of depression—hinting at an additional potential benefit of hypnosis.
In the 1980s and 1990s, a moral panic took place in the US fearing Satanic ritual abuse. As part of this, certain books such as The Devil's Disciples stated that some bands, particularly in the musical genre of heavy metal, brainwashed American teenagers with subliminal messages to lure them into the worship of the devil, sexual immorality, murder, and especially suicide. The use of satanic iconography and rhetoric in this genre provokes the parents and society, and also advocate masculine power for an audience, especially on teenagers who were ambivalent of their identity. The counteraction on heavy metal in terms of satanic brainwashing is an evidence that linked to the automatic response theories of musical hypnotism.
Jump up ^ Grinder, John; Richard Bandler; Connirae Andreas, eds. (1981), Trance-Formations: Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis, Moab, UT: Real People Press, ISBN 0-911226-23-0, In a seminar, Bandler & Grinder (1981, p. 166) claimed that a single session of NLP combined with hypnosis could eliminate certain eyesight problems such as myopia and cure the common cold (op.cit., p. 174)...(Also, op.cit., p. 169) Bandler and Grinder believed that, by combining NLP with hypnotic regression, one not only cured a problem, but became amnesic for the fact that it even existed at all. Thus, after a session of "therapy," a smoker denied smoking before, even when family and friends insisted otherwise, becoming unable to account for such evidence as nicotine stains.
In this state, you are also highly suggestible. That is, when the hypnotist tells you do something, you'll probably embrace the idea completely. This is what makes stage hypnotist shows so entertaining. Normally reserved, sensible adults are suddenly walking around the stage clucking like chickens or singing at the top of their lungs. Fear of embarrassment seems to fly out the window. The subject's sense of safety and morality remain entrenched throughout the experience, however. A hypnotist can't get you to do anything you don't want to do.
Why hypnosis works is still something of a mystery, but Snow says researchers know it goes beyond the placebo effect. “We don’t know exactly what the mechanism is, but for pain, especially, there is a mechanism where you’re helping change the pain signal,” says Snow. In one study, when compared to a number of alternative pain therapies including yoga, meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and exercise, hypnosis was shown to be the most effective pain-management tool among cancer patients. A 2008 study found that hypnosis affects actual brain chemistry, not just the patient’s experience. So it doesn’t only work if you believe that it will.
Jump up ^ Dilts, Robert; Grinder, John; Bandler, Richard; Bandler, Leslie C.; DeLozier, Judith (1980). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Volume I The Study of the Structure of Subjective Experience (Limited ed.). California: Meta Publications. pp. 77–80. ISBN 0-916990-07-9. Strategies and representations which typically occur below an individual's level of awareness make up what is often called or referred to as the "unconscious mind."
However, Freud gradually abandoned hypnotism in favour of psychoanalysis, emphasizing free association and interpretation of the unconscious. Struggling with the great expense of time that psychoanalysis required, Freud later suggested that it might be combined with hypnotic suggestion to hasten the outcome of treatment, but that this would probably weaken the outcome: "It is very probable, too, that the application of our therapy to numbers will compel us to alloy the pure gold of analysis plentifully with the copper of direct [hypnotic] suggestion."
In the 2010s, representation learning and deep neural network-style machine learning methods became widespread in natural language processing, due in part to a flurry of results showing that such techniques can achieve state-of-the-art results in many natural language tasks, for example in language modeling, parsing, and many others. Popular techniques include the use of word embeddings to capture semantic properties of words, and an increase in end-to-end learning of a higher-level task (e.g., question answering) instead of relying on a pipeline of separate intermediate tasks (e.g., part-of-speech tagging and dependency parsing). In some areas, this shift has entailed substantial changes in how NLP systems are designed, such that deep neural network-based approaches may be viewed as a new paradigm distinct from statistical natural language processing. For instance, the term neural machine translation (NMT) emphasizes the fact that deep learning-based approaches to machine translation directly learn sequence-to-sequence transformations, obviating the need for intermediate steps such as word alignment and language modeling that were used in statistical machine translation (SMT).
I am a therapist and find this book well written and most of all, very useful. Yes, for someone whom has studied this subject in depth, its more of a summary. Great for a quick reference and a quick re-read and brush up. The negative reviews regarding grammer show up in most of the books and are usually just the OCD folks doing their thing. I see the same form of attack from other authors trying to steer readers to their products. Overall a great book, short, concise and to the point.
Research into hypnosis in military applications is further verified by the Project MKULTRA experiments, also conducted by the CIA. According to Congressional testimony, the CIA experimented with utilizing LSD and hypnosis for mind control. Many of these programs were done domestically and on participants who were not informed of the study's purposes or that they would be given drugs.
At the outset of cognitive behavioural therapy during the 1950s, hypnosis was used by early behaviour therapists such as Joseph Wolpe and also by early cognitive therapists such as Albert Ellis. Barber, Spanos, and Chaves introduced the term "cognitive-behavioural" to describe their "nonstate" theory of hypnosis in Hypnosis, imagination, and human potentialities. However, Clark L. Hull had introduced a behavioural psychology as far back as 1933, which in turn was preceded by Ivan Pavlov. Indeed, the earliest theories and practices of hypnotism, even those of Braid, resemble the cognitive-behavioural orientation in some respects.
It overhypes conversational hypnosis (to an extent). Although I’m a big believer in the power of conversational/covert hypnosis, I also think that The Power of Conversational Hypnosis has a tendency to overhype the system/methods it teaches somewhat. The power of being able to persuade and covertly hypnotise others is certainly immense, but it is not a silver bullet for every one of life’s problems. However, with the right mindset and careful application in selected situations, you can achieve some fantastic results. Just remember that conversational hypnosis needs to work in conjunction with other NLP-based strategies, such as increasing your self-confidence.
Grinder and Bandler's first book on NLP, Structure of Magic: A Book about Language of Therapy, was released in 1975. In this publication, they attempted to highlight certain patterns of communication that set communicators considered to be excellent apart from others. Much of the book was based on the work of Virginia Satir, Fritz Perls, and Milton Erickson. It also integrated techniques and theories from other renowned mental health professionals and researchers such as Noam Chomsky, Gregory Bateson, Carlos Castaneda, and Alfred Korzybski. The result of Grinder and Bandler's work was the development of the NLP meta model, a technique they believed could identify language patterns that reflected basic cognitive processes.
This video is of a lower quality but I have included it as a bonus demonstration lecture here at the end of the course for those who may be interested in seeing more demonstrations because it shows a live example in front of an audience of hypnotising someone conversationally and how I utilise what I observe and how they respond to me, to the audience and to sounds around them.
Convert chunks of text into more formal representations such as first-order logic structures that are easier for computer programs to manipulate. Natural language understanding involves the identification of the intended semantic from the multiple possible semantics which can be derived from a natural language expression which usually takes the form of organized notations of natural language concepts. Introduction and creation of language metamodel and ontology are efficient however empirical solutions. An explicit formalization of natural language semantics without confusions with implicit assumptions such as closed-world assumption (CWA) vs. open-world assumption, or subjective Yes/No vs. objective True/False is expected for the construction of a basis of semantics formalization.
Changes in brain activity have been found in some studies of highly responsive hypnotic subjects. These changes vary depending upon the type of suggestions being given. The state of light to medium hypnosis, where the body undergoes physical and mental relaxation, is associated with a pattern mostly of alpha waves However, what these results indicate is unclear. They may indicate that suggestions genuinely produce changes in perception or experience that are not simply a result of imagination. However, in normal circumstances without hypnosis, the brain regions associated with motion detection are activated both when motion is seen and when motion is imagined, without any changes in the subjects' perception or experience. This may therefore indicate that highly suggestible hypnotic subjects are simply activating to a greater extent the areas of the brain used in imagination, without real perceptual changes. It is, however, premature to claim that hypnosis and meditation are mediated by similar brain systems and neural mechanisms.
Hypnosis is normally preceded by a "hypnotic induction" technique. Traditionally, this was interpreted as a method of putting the subject into a "hypnotic trance"; however, subsequent "nonstate" theorists have viewed it differently, seeing it as a means of heightening client expectation, defining their role, focusing attention, etc. There are several different induction techniques. One of the most influential methods was Braid's "eye-fixation" technique, also known as "Braidism". Many variations of the eye-fixation approach exist, including the induction used in the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS), the most widely used research tool in the field of hypnotism. Braid's original description of his induction is as follows: