Separate a chunk of continuous text into separate words. For a language like English, this is fairly trivial, since words are usually separated by spaces. However, some written languages like Chinese, Japanese and Thai do not mark word boundaries in such a fashion, and in those languages text segmentation is a significant task requiring knowledge of the vocabulary and morphology of words in the language. Sometimes this process is also used in cases like Bag of Words (BOW) creation in data mining.
When we scratch our hair using one or more fingers anywhere on top, back or side of the head, it signals the emotional state of confusion. Watch any student trying to solve a difficult problem and you are likely to observe this gesture. There isn't a better place to observe this gesture than an exam hall, where students often have no idea what the question paper is trying to say!
Conversational hypnosis (also known as covert hypnosis) is a specialism within the larger field of hypnosis, which can be used to enhance powers of persuasion and influence. Often used by marketers, psychologists, motivational speakers, and other roles where negotiation skills are important, this is an incredibly subtle, but powerful form of human interaction.
Grinder and Bandler's first book on NLP, Structure of Magic: A Book about Language of Therapy, was released in 1975. In this publication, they attempted to highlight certain patterns of communication that set communicators considered to be excellent apart from others. Much of the book was based on the work of Virginia Satir, Fritz Perls, and Milton Erickson. It also integrated techniques and theories from other renowned mental health professionals and researchers such as Noam Chomsky, Gregory Bateson, Carlos Castaneda, and Alfred Korzybski. The result of Grinder and Bandler's work was the development of the NLP meta model, a technique they believed could identify language patterns that reflected basic cognitive processes.
So far, so good. For people in the PHA group, brain activation measured by fMRI correlated with the failure to remember. But what if reduced activation is always found in such people regardless of whether they are remembering or forgetting? We can rule this possibility out because people in the PHA group showed reduced activation only when they (unsuccessfully) answered questions about the content of the movie, not when they (successfully) answered questions about the context of the movie. Indeed, for the context questions, they showed the same activation as people in the non-PHA group. Perhaps then, the reduced activation reflects complete forgetting of the information, not just temporary suppression? We can rule this possibility out also because, in a neat reversal, people in the PHA group showed normal activation—just as those in the non-PHA group did—as soon as the suggestion was cancelled.

The hypnotist gains rapport[13][14] with the listener(s) and the hypnotist maintains psychological congruency[15] (the act of truly acting towards your goals without hesitation[clarification needed]), both linguistically and in one's nonverbal communication. As the subject listens while feeling a psychological connection with the hypnotist and the hypnotist displaying behaviors such as confidence and understanding,[13] the hypnotist then presents linguistic data in the form of metaphor:
You can look for things like changes in their eye pupil dilation, blink rate, eyes kind of glazing over as if they’re looking at nothing, changes in skin color, breathing rate and depth changes, relaxation in facial or body muscles. Body language changes, such as arms being more open, changes in head position, changes in feet position, leaning forward or away from you, restlessness ( a sure sign they’re not following you). You can also look for slight twitches in the face, the fingers or hands – these are brought about by the autonomic nervous system, so are unconscious rather than conscious responses. We hope you find our advice useful, and all the best in your observations.
Proponents of neuro-linguistic programming propose that everyone has a personal map of reality. Those who practice NLP analyze their own and other perspectives to create a systematic overview of one situation. By understanding a range of perspectives, the NLP user gains information. Advocates of this school of thought believe the senses are vital for processing available information and that the body and mind influence each other. Neuro-linguistic programming is an experiential approach. Therefore, if a person wants to understand an action, they must perform that same action to learn from the experience.
"This training made me realize how infrequently I practice creating rapport. I find myself getting annoyed or bored by people who are not speaking on my same passionate wavelength about subjects that really interest me. I also feel intimidated and repressed by those who are speaking passionately about subjects that do not interest me. I will try to notice my avoidance behaviors and replace them with rapport building communication." Read more testimonials
Once rapport is established, the practitioner may gather information (e.g., using the Meta-Model questions) about the client's present state as well as help the client define a desired state or goal for the interaction. The practitioner pays particular attention to the verbal and non-verbal responses as the client defines the present state and desired state and any "resources" that may be required to bridge the gap.[58] The client is typically encouraged to consider the consequences of the desired outcome, and how they may affect his or her personal or professional life and relationships, taking into account any positive intentions of any problems that may arise (i.e. ecological check).[58] Fourth, the practitioner assists the client in achieving the desired outcomes by using certain tools and techniques to change internal representations and responses to stimuli in the world.[60][61] Finally, the changes are "future paced" by helping the client to mentally rehearse and integrate the changes into his or her life.[58] For example, the client may be asked to "step into the future" and represent (mentally see, hear and feel) what it is like having already achieved the outcome.

The patient must be made to understand that he is to keep the eyes steadily fixed on the object, and the mind riveted on the idea of that one object. It will be observed, that owing to the consensual adjustment of the eyes, the pupils will be at first contracted: They will shortly begin to dilate, and, after they have done so to a considerable extent, and have assumed a wavy motion, if the fore and middle fingers of the right hand, extended and a little separated, are carried from the object toward the eyes, most probably the eyelids will close involuntarily, with a vibratory motion. If this is not the case, or the patient allows the eyeballs to move, desire him to begin anew, giving him to understand that he is to allow the eyelids to close when the fingers are again carried towards the eyes, but that the eyeballs must be kept fixed, in the same position, and the mind riveted to the one idea of the object held above the eyes. In general, it will be found, that the eyelids close with a vibratory motion, or become spasmodically closed.[34]
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