Given a stream of text, determine which items in the text map to proper names, such as people or places, and what the type of each such name is (e.g. person, location, organization). Note that, although capitalization can aid in recognizing named entities in languages such as English, this information cannot aid in determining the type of named entity, and in any case is often inaccurate or insufficient. For example, the first word of a sentence is also capitalized, and named entities often span several words, only some of which are capitalized. Furthermore, many other languages in non-Western scripts (e.g. Chinese or Arabic) do not have any capitalization at all, and even languages with capitalization may not consistently use it to distinguish names. For example, German capitalizes all nouns, regardless of whether they are names, and French and Spanish do not capitalize names that serve as adjectives.
Carol is president of Sommer Solutions, Inc. through which she coaches and trains clinical and corporate audiences internationally. She has presented at numerous professional conferences, including American Society of Clinical Hypnosis and Ericksonian Congresses. Carol maintains a private practice in personal and professional coaching and counseling in Downers Grove, IL.

In the course of reading a recent report on the dramatic increase in cases of erectile dysfunction, I was interested to note that “performance anxiety” is recognized as a significant factor in many instances. Has anybody successfully assisted sufferers from ED; in particular those affected by performance anxiety (which has no physiological component)?
The good news, Smith says, is that hypnosis is easier than meditation for most people. Meditation is typically more open-ended, and self-guided, whereas hypnosis has an end goal in mind. You also aren’t expected to totally clear your mind. “The conscious mind isn’t our goal,” says Smith. “Ultimately we’re focused on the subconscious. You can think thoughts and still be hypnotized. Ninety-nine percent of people will [still think other thoughts].”
Research into hypnosis in military applications is further verified by the Project MKULTRA experiments, also conducted by the CIA.[149] According to Congressional testimony,[150] the CIA experimented with utilizing LSD and hypnosis for mind control. Many of these programs were done domestically and on participants who were not informed of the study's purposes or that they would be given drugs.[150]

The original version of this story misstated the findings of two of Milling’s review articles. Hypnosis was found to significantly add to the benefits of standard medical care, not outperform it. Hypnosis was also found to reduce kids’ post-surgical pain, not to eliminate it. It also mischaracterized Milling’s view of the “suggestion” phase of hypnosis. Suggestions are a tailored invitation to experience imaginary events as if they were real. They are not dependent on the individual and they are not like asking a psychologist what they will say during psychotherapy.


Before you can become a conversational hypnosis master, you have to start with the basics first. To start learning conversational hypnosis more effectively, you need to clear out your misconceptions about it and look at it more realistically. See for yourself what is possible and what’s not. Determine if it is something you really want to learn, if it is something you want to put your time, money and effort in. Purify your intentions and purpose for learning conversational hypnosis. Do not fall into the trap of thinking you can use it for something like stealing from others or harming other people. It will only end in a bad may for you if you have that kind of purpose. But if you wish for prosperity and blessings in your life and others by using conversational hypnosis, then you will surely achieve great and wonderful things.
Is a method of influencing brain behaviour (the "neuro" part of the phrase) through the use of language (the "linguistic" part) and other types of communication to enable a person to "recode" the way the brain responds to stimuli (that's the "programming") and manifest new and better behaviours. Neuro-Linguistic Programming often incorporates hypnosis and self-hypnosis to help achieve the change (or "programming") that is wanted.
In the 1980s and 1990s, a moral panic took place in the US fearing Satanic ritual abuse. As part of this, certain books such as The Devil's Disciples stated that some bands, particularly in the musical genre of heavy metal, brainwashed American teenagers with subliminal messages to lure them into the worship of the devil, sexual immorality, murder, and especially suicide.[156] The use of satanic iconography and rhetoric in this genre provokes the parents and society, and also advocate masculine power for an audience, especially on teenagers who were ambivalent of their identity. The counteraction on heavy metal in terms of satanic brainwashing is an evidence that linked to the automatic response theories of musical hypnotism.[157]
NLP Practitioner is the first level of NLP training. There is generally no requirement of NLP experience, and anyone can enroll. An NLP Practitioner training encompasses learning the basic elements of NLP, as well as the techniques of combining these elements to apply them with skill and elegance. This training provides a series of skills and strategies for success, as well as creating value in life. Thus, it includes addressing challenges in relationships, business, family, as well as education. Learning to solve such issues leads to greater personal growth. A quality NLP practitioner course usually involves projects of real-life application of the NLP Skills. These skills help others to overcome fears and phobias, in addition to learning greater confidence.
In 2013, the then-40-year-old amateur hypnotist Timothy Porter attempted to sexually abuse his female weight-loss client. She reported awaking from a trance and finding him behind her with his pants down, telling her to touch herself. He was subsequently called to court and included on the sex offender list.[161] In 2015, Gary Naraido, then 52, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for several hypnosis-related sexual abuse charges. Besides the primary charge by a 22-year-old woman who he sexually abused in a hotel under the guise of a free therapy session, he also admitted to having sexually assaulted a 14-year-old girl.[162]
The hypnotist gains rapport[13][14] with the listener(s) and the hypnotist maintains psychological congruency[15] (the act of truly acting towards your goals without hesitation[clarification needed]), both linguistically and in one's nonverbal communication. As the subject listens while feeling a psychological connection with the hypnotist and the hypnotist displaying behaviors such as confidence and understanding,[13] the hypnotist then presents linguistic data in the form of metaphor:
André Muller Weitzenhoffer—a friend and peer of Milton Erickson—wrote, "Has NLP really abstracted and explicated the essence of successful therapy and provided everyone with the means to be another Whittaker, Virginia Satir, or Erickson?...[NLP's] failure to do this is evident because today there is no multitude of their equals, not even another Whittaker, Virginia Satir, or Erickson. Ten years should have been sufficient time for this to happen. In this light, I cannot take NLP seriously...[NLP's] contributions to our understanding and use of Ericksonian techniques are equally dubious. Patterns I and II are poorly written works that were an overambitious, pretentious effort to reduce hypnotism to a magic of words."[81]
In conventional hypnosis, you approach the suggestions of the hypnotist, or your own ideas, as if they were reality. If the hypnotist suggests that your tongue has swollen up to twice its size, you'll feel a sensation in your mouth and you may have trouble talking. If the hypnotist suggests that you are drinking a chocolate milkshake, you'll taste the milkshake and feel it cooling your mouth and throat. If the hypnotist suggests that you are afraid, you may feel panicky or start to sweat. But the entire time, you are aware that it's all imaginary. Essentially, you're "playing pretend" on an intense level, as kids do.
Gruzelier and his colleagues studied brain activity using an fMRI while subjects completed a standard cognitive exercise, called the Stroop task. The team screened subjects before the study and chose 12 that were highly susceptible to hypnosis and 12 with low susceptibility. They all completed the task in the fMRI under normal conditions and then again under hypnosis. Throughout the study, both groups were consistent in their task results, achieving similar scores regardless of their mental state. During their first task session, before hypnosis, there were no significant differences in brain activity between the groups. But under hypnosis, Gruzelier found that the highly susceptible subjects showed significantly more brain activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus than the weakly susceptible subjects. This area of the brain has been shown to respond to errors and evaluate emotional outcomes. The highly susceptible group also showed much greater brain activity on the left side of the prefrontal cortex than the weakly susceptible group. This is an area involved with higher level cognitive processing and behaviour.[178][179]
The main theorist who pioneered the influential role-taking theory of hypnotism was Theodore Sarbin. Sarbin argued that hypnotic responses were motivated attempts to fulfill the socially constructed roles of hypnotic subjects. This has led to the misconception that hypnotic subjects are simply "faking". However, Sarbin emphasised the difference between faking, in which there is little subjective identification with the role in question, and role-taking, in which the subject not only acts externally in accord with the role but also subjectively identifies with it to some degree, acting, thinking, and feeling "as if" they are hypnotised. Sarbin drew analogies between role-taking in hypnosis and role-taking in other areas such as method acting, mental illness, and shamanic possession, etc. This interpretation of hypnosis is particularly relevant to understanding stage hypnosis, in which there is clearly strong peer pressure to comply with a socially constructed role by performing accordingly on a theatrical stage.
Meditation practice focuses on stilling or emptying the mind. Typically, meditators concentrate on their breath or a sound (mantra) they repeat to themselves. They may, alternatively, attempt to reach a state of “detached observation,” in which they are aware of their environment but do not become involved in thinking about it. In meditation, the body remains alert and in an upright position. In addition to formal sitting meditation, patients can be taught mindfulness meditation, which involves bringing a sense of awareness and focus to their involvement in everyday activities.
Next, we want to consider the importance of a each word in the sentence. English has a lot of filler words that appear very frequently like “and”, “the”, and “a”. When doing statistics on text, these words introduce a lot of noise since they appear way more frequently than other words. Some NLP pipelines will flag them as stop words —that is, words that you might want to filter out before doing any statistical analysis.
Though limited in number, scientific studies have investigated the effectiveness of NLP as a treatment method. In a 2013 study, researchers investigated whether the language and visualization techniques used in neuro-linguistic programming would help children with special education needs be better prepared for learning in the classroom. Researchers concluded NLP techniques helped the children develop a positive state of mind conducive to learning. However, it was also explained that these were "brief, tentative conclusions." In addition to other limiting factors, the sample consisted of only seven children.

A community of psychotherapists and students began to form around Bandler and Grinder's initial works, leading to the growth and spread of NLP as a theory and practice.[39] For example, Tony Robbins trained with Grinder and utilized a few ideas from NLP as part of his own self-help and motivational speaking programmes.[40] Bandler led several unsuccessful efforts to exclude other parties from using NLP.[41] Meanwhile, the rising number of practitioners and theorists led NLP to become even less uniform than it was at its foundation.[18] Prior to the decline of NLP, scientific researchers began testing its theoretical underpinnings empirically, with research indicating a lack of empirical support for NLP's essential theories.[14] The 1990s were characterized by fewer scientific studies evaluating the methods of NLP than the previous decade. Tomasz Witkowski attributes this to a declining interest in the debate as the result of a lack of empirical support for NLP from its proponents.[14]


To provide and encourage education programs to further, in every ethical way, the knowledge, understanding, and application of hypnosis in health care; to encourage research and scientific publication in the field of hypnosis; to promote the further recognition and acceptance of hypnosis as an important tool in clinical health care and focus for scientific research; to cooperate with other professional societies that share mutual goals, ethics and interests; and to provide a professional community for those clinicians and researchers who use hypnosis in their work.
In as much as patients can throw themselves into the nervous sleep, and manifest all the usual phenomena of Mesmerism, through their own unaided efforts, as I have so repeatedly proved by causing them to maintain a steady fixed gaze at any point, concentrating their whole mental energies on the idea of the object looked at; or that the same may arise by the patient looking at the point of his own finger, or as the Magi of Persia and Yogi of India have practised for the last 2,400 years, for religious purposes, throwing themselves into their ecstatic trances by each maintaining a steady fixed gaze at the tip of his own nose; it is obvious that there is no need for an exoteric influence to produce the phenomena of Mesmerism. [...] The great object in all these processes is to induce a habit of abstraction or concentration of attention, in which the subject is entirely absorbed with one idea, or train of ideas, whilst he is unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, every other object, purpose, or action.[52]

Hypnosis is effective in decreasing the fear of cancer treatment[127] reducing pain from[128] and coping with cancer[129] and other chronic conditions.[116] Nausea and other symptoms related to incurable diseases may also be managed with hypnosis.[130][131][132][133] Some practitioners have claimed hypnosis might help boost the immune system of people with cancer. However, according to the American Cancer Society, "available scientific evidence does not support the idea that hypnosis can influence the development or progression of cancer."[134]
Snow finds hypnosis especially useful for cancer patients who want to treat their pain and anxiety, but don’t want to take more medications. “The patients I work with obviously have a reason to be anxious, and so we normalize that, and understand that, and we try to teach them skills like self-hypnosis to manage their anxiety.” Snow has a certification in hypnosis from the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (which she says required 200 hours of training), but she says anyone can learn to practice self-hypnosis—which is not dissimilar from meditation in appearance, but involves working toward a specific goal. Her patients are given a CD with guided hypnosis, and sometimes record their sessions so they can listen back and practice on themselves.
You get a no-questions-asked 60 day money-back guarantee. Although I don’t think you will need to call on it (provided you take my advice and work hard to apply the lessons you learn during the course) it is reassuring to know that if you really don’t think the Power of Conversational hypnosis is right for you, then you can get your money back easily.

Braid can be taken to imply, in later writings, that hypnosis is largely a state of heightened suggestibility induced by expectation and focused attention. In particular, Hippolyte Bernheim became known as the leading proponent of the "suggestion theory" of hypnosis, at one point going so far as to declare that there is no hypnotic state, only heightened suggestibility. There is a general consensus that heightened suggestibility is an essential characteristic of hypnosis. In 1933, Clark L. Hull wrote:
This finding—that PHA temporarily disrupted some people’s ability to recall the past—echoes decades of hypnosis research. What is entirely new in Mendelsohn et al.’s study is their demonstration that PHA was associated with a specific pattern of brain activation. Consistent with what normally occurs in remembering, when people in the non-PHA group performed the recognition task and successfully remembered what happened in the movie, fMRI showed high levels of activity in areas responsible for visualizing scenes (the occipital lobes) and for analyzing verbally presented scenarios (the left temporal lobe). In stark contrast, when people in the PHA group performed the recognition task and failed to remember the content of the movie, fMRI showed little or no activity in these areas. Also, fMRI showed enhanced activity in another area (the prefrontal cortex) responsible for regulating activity in other brain areas.
In terms of weight loss, some of Kirsch’s research has found that, compared to people undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)—one of the most evidence-backed non-drug treatments for weight loss, depression and many other conditions—those who undergo cognitive behavior therapy coupled with hypnosis tend to lose significantly more weight. After four to six months, those undergoing CBT+hypnosis dropped more than 20 pounds, while those who just did CBT lost about half that amount. The hypnosis group also maintained that weight loss during an 18-month follow-up period, while the CBT-only group tended to regain some weight.
There is nothing really wrong with the book, per say. I quickly skimmed it and the material seems to be quality and the author seems to have knowledge & expertise with the subject matter. The reason I rated it 'just ok" is that the book is written in a very academic style, like for a research paper or thesis. It seems great for a person studying this topic for a masters or doctoral program, or for a person whom is a practicing therapist. However, I feel it is really not written for a layperson whom is looking to use some of these techniques in the business worlds, say in sales or marketing.

But how does the suppression mechanism decide what to suppress? In this study, movie content but not movie context was influenced by PHA. Memories involve the “what,” “how,” “when” and “where” of an event interwoven together, such that distinctions between content and context may be blurred (for example, “Was the movie shot with a hand-held camera?”). To make such fine discriminations, the brain’s suppressor module presumably needs to process information at a sufficiently high level. Yet this module needs to act quickly, preconsciously suppressing activation of the information before it even enters awareness. Brain imaging technologies with superior temporal resolution to fMRI, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), might help to resolve this seeming paradox of sophisticated, yet rapid, operations.
A community of psychotherapists and students began to form around Bandler and Grinder's initial works, leading to the growth and spread of NLP as a theory and practice.[39] For example, Tony Robbins trained with Grinder and utilized a few ideas from NLP as part of his own self-help and motivational speaking programmes.[40] Bandler led several unsuccessful efforts to exclude other parties from using NLP.[41] Meanwhile, the rising number of practitioners and theorists led NLP to become even less uniform than it was at its foundation.[18] Prior to the decline of NLP, scientific researchers began testing its theoretical underpinnings empirically, with research indicating a lack of empirical support for NLP's essential theories.[14] The 1990s were characterized by fewer scientific studies evaluating the methods of NLP than the previous decade. Tomasz Witkowski attributes this to a declining interest in the debate as the result of a lack of empirical support for NLP from its proponents.[14]

Neuro-Linguistic Programming was specifically created in order to allow us to do magic by creating new ways of understanding how verbal and non-verbal communication affect the human brain. As such it presents us all with the opportunity to not only communicate better with others, but also learn how to gain more control over what we considered to be automatic functions of our own neurology.


With the general process explained, and my misconceptions dispelled, Smith told me we were ready to begin. I’d decided to focus our sessions on my generalized anxiety, of which I have plenty left over even after Prozac and regular therapy. To begin our first session, Smith asked me to close my eyes and rate my current stress level on a scale between zero and 10. I said four. Sitting on a wooden chair at my makeshift desk (a folding table near my living-room window), next to a busy Brooklyn street, I was doubtful I would be able to get that number any lower. But Smith has an unusually soothing voice, and she’s earnest without crossing over into woo-woo territory. I would rather die than attend any event requiring audience participation, but somehow, when Smith asks me to repeat lines after her, or to converse with my 16-year-old self, I don’t resist. (Admittedly, I don’t have many other options, though I suppose I could have hung up on her.) This is the simplest understanding of what it is hypnosis can do: lower your guard, just a little bit.
In the early 1980s, NLP was advertised as an important advance in psychotherapy and counseling, and attracted some interest in counseling research and clinical psychology. However, as controlled trials failed to show any benefit from NLP and its advocates made increasingly dubious claims, scientific interest in NLP faded.[88][89] Numerous literature reviews and meta-analyses have failed to show evidence for NLP's assumptions or effectiveness as a therapeutic method.[90] While some NLP practitioners have argued that the lack of empirical support is due to insufficient research testing NLP,[91] the consensus scientific opinion is that NLP is pseudoscience[92] and that attempts to dismiss the research findings based on these arguments "[constitute]s an admission that NLP does not have an evidence base and that NLP practitioners are seeking a post-hoc credibility."[93] Surveys in the academic community have shown NLP to be widely discredited among scientists.[94] Among the reasons for considering NLP a pseudoscience are that evidence in favor of it is limited to anecdotes and personal testimony,[95] that it is not informed by scientific understanding of neuroscience and linguistics,[96] and that the name "neuro-linguistic programming" uses jargon words to impress readers and obfuscate ideas, whereas NLP itself does not relate any phenomena to neural structures and has nothing in common with linguistics or programming.[97] In fact, in education, NLP has been used as a key example of pseudoscience.[98]
At the outset of cognitive behavioural therapy during the 1950s, hypnosis was used by early behaviour therapists such as Joseph Wolpe[71] and also by early cognitive therapists such as Albert Ellis.[72] Barber, Spanos, and Chaves introduced the term "cognitive-behavioural" to describe their "nonstate" theory of hypnosis in Hypnosis, imagination, and human potentialities.[35] However, Clark L. Hull had introduced a behavioural psychology as far back as 1933, which in turn was preceded by Ivan Pavlov.[73] Indeed, the earliest theories and practices of hypnotism, even those of Braid, resemble the cognitive-behavioural orientation in some respects.[69][74]
This popular representation bears little resemblance to actual hypnotism, of course. In fact, modern understanding of hypnosis contradicts this conception on several key points. Subjects in a hypnotic trance are not slaves to their "masters" -- they have absolute free will. And they're not really in a semi-sleep state -- they're actually hyperattentive.

A state of forgetfulness may be elicited by talking about what it feels like to be in that state in a manner that implies the other person is currently experiencing it. Once this state is at a heightened peak the hypnotist can then talk about that state, relating to a concept like the unsuspecting subject's name (a phenomenon called name amnesia), and the subject will suddenly be unaware of his/her name on questioning (provided the suggestions implied immediate effect and the reader is suggestible enough to be influenced in this way). The purpose of covert hypnosis is to shut down or at least reduce the use of analytical mind in a person. This may be achieved fairly quickly by someone with practice.[13]
Covert hypnosis refers to the process of communicating with someone’s unconscious mind without them knowing it’s happening and is the basis of Conversational Hypnosis. This can take place during a regular conversation: with the hypnotist’s aim being to create a positive change in the person’s life so they become happier, healthier, more abundant, more confident and so on.
Jump up ^ Braid, J. (1844/1855), "Magic, Mesmerism, Hypnotism, etc., etc. Historically and Physiologically Considered", The Medical Times, Vol.11, No.272, (7 December 1844), pp.203-204, No.273, (14 December 1844), p.224-227, No.275, (28 December 1844), pp.270-273, No.276, (4 January 1845), pp.296-299, No.277, (11 January 1845), pp.318-320, No.281, (8 February 1845), pp.399-400, and No.283, (22 February 1845), pp.439-441: at p.203.
There are many organizations that oversee, organize, and often accredit training centers. All NLP organizations agree to the following levels of NLP training, which can be found at many NLP training centers. However, this does not mean that one can move from training center to training center, hoping to acquire the next level of training. Often training centers have their courses build on the previous course content. Therefore, it is best to either commit to taking all your training at one center or checking with the training centers prior to starting your NLP journey.

Braid soon assimilated Carpenter's observations into his own theory, realising that the effect of focusing attention was to enhance the ideo-motor reflex response. Braid extended Carpenter's theory to encompass the influence of the mind upon the body more generally, beyond the muscular system, and therefore referred to the "ideo-dynamic" response and coined the term "psycho-physiology" to refer to the study of general mind/body interaction.

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