A core concept of NLP can be summarized by the saying, “The map is not the territory,” because it highlights the differences between belief and reality. It points out that each person operates within their own perspective rather than from a place of objectivity. Proponents of NLP believe everyone’s perception of the world is distorted, limited, and unique. A therapist who practices NLP must therefore understand how a person in treatment perceives their “map” and the effect this perception may have on that person’s thoughts and behavior. 
Stage hypnosis is a form of entertainment, traditionally employed in a club or theatre before an audience. Due to stage hypnotists' showmanship, many people believe that hypnosis is a form of mind control. Stage hypnotists typically attempt to hypnotise the entire audience and then select individuals who are "under" to come up on stage and perform embarrassing acts, while the audience watches. However, the effects of stage hypnosis are probably due to a combination of psychological factors, participant selection, suggestibility, physical manipulation, stagecraft, and trickery.[152] The desire to be the centre of attention, having an excuse to violate their own fear suppressors, and the pressure to please are thought to convince subjects to "play along".[153] Books by stage hypnotists sometimes explicitly describe the use of deception in their acts; for example, Ormond McGill's New Encyclopedia of Stage Hypnosis describes an entire "fake hypnosis" act that depends upon the use of private whispers throughout.
People respond to hypnosis to varying degrees and different ways, but most people for whom the procedure works experience a sense of calm and relaxation. — Carolyn L. Todd, SELF, "Keira Knightley Used Hypnosis to Help Deal With Stress Early in Her Career," 5 Oct. 2018 The song had all the potential to become a surefire hit, from JC’s come-hither vocals to the snakecharmer hypnosis of the production. — Bianca Gracie, Billboard, "In Defense of JC Chasez, *NSYNC's Underappreciated Boy Band Frontman," 24 Apr. 2018 There was even a time when people worried about highway hypnosis, the tendency for smooth, uninterrupted freeways to lull drivers to their doom. — Ian Bogost, The Atlantic, "Driving Without a Smartphone," 10 July 2018 Melissa Errico stars as the hypnosis-seeking Daisy with Stephen Bogardus as the doctor who prefers her past life to her present one. — Alexis Soloski, New York Times, "11 Plays and Musicals to Go to in N.Y.C. This Weekend," 21 June 2018 Texas Department of Public Safety spokesman Tom Vinger says hypnosis is used by trained professionals in only a few cases. — Fox News, "Texas death row inmates push for forensic hypnosis ban," 14 May 2018 Kurczewski thought hypnosis could help get a clear story out of Teri. — jsonline.com, "CHAPTER 5: THE GIRL IN THE CAFÉ," 27 Sep. 2017 The most worrisome of all to Orloff are apps offering help for people experiencing suicide ideation or seeking anxiety release hypnosis. — Ken Alltucker, Alex Connor And Jayne O'donnell, USA TODAY, "Mobile therapy apps: With suicide rates on the rise, can text chats rescue those on the edge?," 15 June 2018 More recently, Sirhan's lawyers have explored whether he was hypnotized to begin shooting his gun when given a certain cue, even hiring a renowned expert in hypnosis from Harvard to meet with Sirhan. — The Washington Post, NOLA.com, "Who killed Bobby Kennedy? His son RFK Jr. doesn't believe it was Sirhan Sirhan," 27 May 2018

Why hypnosis works is still something of a mystery, but Snow says researchers know it goes beyond the placebo effect. “We don’t know exactly what the mechanism is, but for pain, especially, there is a mechanism where you’re helping change the pain signal,” says Snow. In one study, when compared to a number of alternative pain therapies including yoga, meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and exercise, hypnosis was shown to be the most effective pain-management tool among cancer patients. A 2008 study found that hypnosis affects actual brain chemistry, not just the patient’s experience. So it doesn’t only work if you believe that it will.
Hypnotherapy has been studied for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.[117][118] Hypnosis for IBS has received moderate support in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidance published for UK health services.[119] It has been used as an aid or alternative to chemical anesthesia,[120][121][122] and it has been studied as a way to soothe skin ailments.[123]
The experience of hypnosis can vary dramatically from one person to another. Some hypnotized individuals report feeling a sense of detachment or extreme relaxation during the hypnotic state while others even feel that their actions seem to occur outside of their conscious volition. Other individuals may remain fully aware and able to carry out conversations while under hypnosis.
An approach loosely based on information theory uses a brain-as-computer model. In adaptive systems, feedback increases the signal-to-noise ratio, which may converge towards a steady state. Increasing the signal-to-noise ratio enables messages to be more clearly received. The hypnotist's object is to use techniques to reduce interference and increase the receptability of specific messages (suggestions).[182]
According to David Spiegel, a hypnotherapist and psychiatry professor at Stanford University, the primary effect of hypnosis is that it allows people to separate their physiological reactions from their psychological reactions. “Typically, when we're anxious about something, our bodies react to that,” he says. “Your muscles tense up, you may start to sweat, you breathe faster, and then you notice that, and you think, ‘Oh God, this is really bad,’ and then your body says, ‘Oh, now she’s feeling really bad.’ It’s kind of a snowball effect.” Hypnosis helps us to isolate our thoughts from our feelings, so to speak, so that we can think about what’s causing us stress without getting absorbed in our physical responses to that stress.
Nearly any task in NLP can be formulates as a sequence to sequence task: machine translation, summarization, question answering, and many more. In this module we will learn a general encoder-decoder-attention architecture that can be used to solve them. We will cover machine translation in more details and you will see how attention technique resembles word alignment task in traditional pipeline.
According to one study by Steinbach,[58] a classic interaction in NLP can be understood in terms of several major stages including establishing rapport, gleaning information about a problem mental state and desired goals, using specific tools and techniques to make interventions, and integrating proposed changes into the client's life. The entire process is guided by the non-verbal responses of the client.[58] The first is the act of establishing and maintaining rapport between the practitioner and the client which is achieved through pacing and leading the verbal (e.g., sensory predicates and keywords) and non-verbal behavior (e.g., matching and mirroring non-verbal behavior, or responding to eye movements) of the client.[59]
However, Freud gradually abandoned hypnotism in favour of psychoanalysis, emphasizing free association and interpretation of the unconscious. Struggling with the great expense of time that psychoanalysis required, Freud later suggested that it might be combined with hypnotic suggestion to hasten the outcome of treatment, but that this would probably weaken the outcome: "It is very probable, too, that the application of our therapy to numbers will compel us to alloy the pure gold of analysis plentifully with the copper of direct [hypnotic] suggestion."[62]
Hypnosis is normally preceded by a "hypnotic induction" technique. Traditionally, this was interpreted as a method of putting the subject into a "hypnotic trance"; however, subsequent "nonstate" theorists have viewed it differently, seeing it as a means of heightening client expectation, defining their role, focusing attention, etc. There are several different induction techniques. One of the most influential methods was Braid's "eye-fixation" technique, also known as "Braidism". Many variations of the eye-fixation approach exist, including the induction used in the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS), the most widely used research tool in the field of hypnotism.[33] Braid's original description of his induction is as follows:
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